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Wednesday, March 31, 2010


Lexegete ™ GOOD FRIDAY | April 6, 2007
Isaiah 52:13—53:12
Psalm 22 (Ps. 22:1)
Hebrews 10:16-25 or Hebrews 4:14-16; 5:7-9
John 18:1—19:42
1. CONTEXT: John 18:1-19:37
Each of the four gospels has a passion account. These passion accounts are
thought to be representative of the earliest stories the church passe around.
They are certainly the longest sustained narratives that the Gospel writers
inherited. In the passion narrative the Gospel of John comes closer to the
Synoptics than in any other place. Despite the relative similarities in the four
accounts, internal evidence shows them to have different sources. The author
of John has used a different source from the sources used by the Synoptics.
Hence the variance in details in the different accounts can be attributed partly
to different sources and partly to different theological intentions of the Gospel
writers. But the case if the Johannine passion account, a clear theological
perspective and a source with different details make it, as usual, more different
from the Synoptics than they are from each other.

Given that the Gospel for the Sunday of the Passion is the Lukan passion
narrative, it would be helpful to review major points of comparison between the
Lukan and Johannine accounts. In John's Gospel, the passion narrative follows
the rather lengthy Farewell discourses, which include some of the incidents and

details that being Luke's passion narrative (Last Supper, prediction of betrayal,
prediction of denial). John's passion begins abruptly, with Jesus leading his
disciples across the Valley of Kidron to a garden, whereupon they immediately
encounter the mob. Luke places it on the Mount of Olives, and includes the
agony of prayer and the sleeping disciples. John's mob includes both state and
religious police, Luke's mentions only religious. John names the injured slaves
and mentions a relative. Luke has Jesus heal the slave.

In the judicial process, John has Jesus taken to Annas (where he is
accompanied by "another disciple," while Peter is left behind). He then goes to
Caiphas, and then to Pilate, before whom there is a lengthy dialogue. Luke has
Jesus go to the high priest's house, the council of elders, Pilate, Herod, then
Pilate, before whom Jesus is relatively silent.

John's Jesus carries his own cross to the crucifixion. Pilate imposes his trilingual
proclamation. Jesus entrusts his mother and the Beloved Disciple to
each other. The women stand close the cross. Jesus declares his thirst, and
ends with, "It is finished." The soldiers do not break his legs, but do pierce his
side. Luke's account has Simon of Cyrene carry the cross. Jesus asks God to
forgive the tormentors. He has conversations with the criminals. His final
words are, "Into your hands I commend my spirit." Darkness and testimonials
follow his death. The faithful women stand afar.

1b. Text: John 18:1—19:41 (ESV)

Jn. 18:1 After Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples
across the Kidron valley to a place where there was a garden, which he and his
disciples entered.
Jn. 18:2 Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, because Jesus
often met there with his disciples.
Jn. 18:3 So Judas brought a detachment of soldiers together with police from
the chief priests and the Pharisees, and they came there with lanterns and
torches and weapons.
Jn. 18:4 Then Jesus, knowing all that was to happen to him, came forward and
asked them, "Whom are you looking for?"
Jn. 18:5 They answered, "Jesus of Nazareth." Jesus replied, "I am he." Judas,
who betrayed him, was standing with them.
Jn. 18:6 When Jesus said to them, "I am he," they stepped back and fell to the
Jn. 18:7 Again he asked them, "Whom are you looking for?" And they said,
"Jesus of Nazareth."
Jn. 18:8 Jesus answered, "I told you that I am he. So if you are looking for me,
let these men go."
Jn. 18:9 This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken, "I did not lose a
single one of those whom you gave me."
Jn. 18:10 Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it, struck the high priest's
slave, and cut off his right ear. The slave's name was Malchus.
Jn. 18:11 Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword back into its sheath. Am I not to
drink the cup that the Father has given me?"
Jn. 18:12 So the soldiers, their officer, and the Jewish police arrested Jesus
and bound him.
Jn. 18:13 First they took him to Annas, who was the father-in-law of
Caiaphas, the high priest that year.
Jn. 18:14 Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jews that it was better to
have one person die for the people.
Jn. 18:15 Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus. Since that disciple
was known to the high priest, he went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high
Jn. 18:16 but Peter was standing outside at the gate. So the other disciple, who
was known to the high priest, went out, spoke to the woman who guarded the
gate, and brought Peter in.
Jn. 18:17 The woman said to Peter, "You are not also one of this man's
disciples, are you?" He said, "I am not."
Jn. 18:18 Now the slaves and the police had made a charcoal fire because it
was cold, and they were standing around it and warming themselves. Peter also
was standing with them and warming himself.
Jn. 18:19 Then the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and about
his teaching.
Jn. 18:20 Jesus answered, "I have spoken openly to the world; I have always
taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all the Jews come together. I
have said nothing in secret.
Jn. 18:21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who heard what I said to them; they
know what I said."
Jn. 18:22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearby struck
Jesus on the face, saying, "Is that how you answer the high priest?"
Jn. 18:23 Jesus answered, "If I have spoken wrongly, testify to the wrong. But
if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?"
Jn. 18:24 Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Jn. 18:25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They asked
him, "You are not also one of his disciples, are you?" He denied it and said, "I
am not."
Jn. 18:26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relative of the man whose ear
Peter had cut off, asked, "Did I not see you in the garden with him?"
Jn. 18:27 Again Peter denied it, and at that moment the cock crowed.
Jn. 18:28 Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate's headquarters. It was
early in the morning. They themselves did not enter the headquarters, so as to
avoid ritual defilement and to be able to eat the Passover.
Jn. 18:29 So Pilate went out to them and said, "What accusation do you bring
against this man?"
Jn. 18:30 They answered, "If this man were not a criminal, we would not have
handed him over to you."
Jn. 18:31 Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves and judge him according
to your law." The Jews replied, "We are not permitted to put anyone to death."
Jn. 18:32 (This was to fulfill what Jesus had said when he indicated the kind
of death he was to die.)
Jn. 18:33 Then Pilate entered the headquarters again, summoned Jesus, and
asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"
Jn. 18:34 Jesus answered, "Do you ask this on your own, or did others tell you
about me?"
Jn. 18:35 Pilate replied, "I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief
priests have handed you over to me. What have you done?"
Jn. 18:36 Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not from this world. If my
kingdom were from this world, my followers would be fighting to keep me
from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here."
Jn. 18:37 Pilate asked him, "So you are a king?" Jesus answered, "You say
that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I came into the world, to
testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice."
Jn. 18:38 Pilate asked him, "What is truth?" After he had said this, he went out
to the Jews again and told them, "I find no case against him.
Jn. 18:39 But you have a custom that I release someone for you at the
Passover. Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?"
Jn. 18:40 They shouted in reply, "Not this man, but Barabbas!" Now Barabbas
was a bandit.
Jn. 19:1 Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged.
Jn. 19:2 And the soldiers wove a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and
they dressed him in a purple robe.
Jn. 19:3 They kept coming up to him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and
striking him on the face.
Jn. 19:4 Pilate went out again and said to them, "Look, I am bringing him out
to you to let you know that I find no case against him."
Jn. 19:5 So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe.
Pilate said to them, "Here is the man!"
Jn. 19:6 When the chief priests and the police saw him, they shouted, "Crucify
him! Crucify him!" Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves and crucify him;
I find no case against him."
Jn. 19:7 The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and according to that law
he ought to die because he has claimed to be the Son of God."
Jn. 19:8 Now when Pilate heard this, he was more afraid than ever.

Jn. 19:9 He entered his headquarters again and asked Jesus, "Where are you
from?" But Jesus gave him no answer.
Jn. 19:10 Pilate therefore said to him, "Do you refuse to speak to me? Do you
not know that I have power to release you, and power to crucify you?"
Jn. 19:11 Jesus answered him, "You would have no power over me unless it
had been given you from above; therefore the one who handed me over to you
is guilty of a greater sin."
Jn. 19:12 From then on Pilate tried to release him, but the Jews cried out, "If
you release this man, you are no friend of the emperor. Everyone who claims to
be a king sets himself against the emperor."
Jn. 19:13 When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus outside and sat on
the judge's bench at a place called The Stone Pavement, or in Hebrew
Jn. 19:14 Now it was the day of Preparation for the Passover; and it was about
noon. He said to the Jews, "Here is your King!"
Jn. 19:15 They cried out, "Away with him! Away with him! Crucify him!"
Pilate asked them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered,
"We have no king but the emperor."
Jn. 19:16 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. So they took
Jn. 19:17 and carrying the cross by himself, he went out to what is called The
Place of the Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.

Jn. 19:18 There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either
side, with Jesus between them.
Jn. 19:19 Pilate also had an inscription written and put on the cross. It read,
"Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews."
Jn. 19:20 Many of the Jews read this inscription, because the place where
Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin,
and in Greek.
Jn. 19:21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, `The
King of the Jews,' but, `This man said, I am King of the Jews.'"
Jn. 19:22 Pilate answered, "What I have written I have written."
Jn. 19:23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and
divided them into four parts, one for each soldier. They also took his tunic; now
the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from the top.
Jn. 19:24 So they said to one another, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to
see who will get it." This was to fulfill what the scripture says, "They divided
my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots."
Jn. 19:25 And that is what the soldiers did. Meanwhile, standing near the cross
of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and
Mary Magdalene.
Jn. 19:26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved
standing beside her, he said to his mother, "Woman, here is your son."
Jn. 19:27 Then he said to the disciple, "Here is your mother." And from that
hour the disciple took her into his own home.
Jn. 19:28 After this, when Jesus knew that all was now finished, he said (in
order to fulfill the scripture), "I am thirsty."
Jn. 19:29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there. So they put a sponge full
of the wine on a branch of hyssop and held it to his mouth.
Jn. 19:30 When Jesus had received the wine, he said, "It is finished." Then he
bowed his head and gave up his spirit.
Jn. 19:31 Since it was the day of Preparation, the Jews did not want the bodies
left on the cross during the sabbath, especially because that sabbath was a day
of great solemnity. So they asked Pilate to have the legs of the crucified men
broken and the bodies removed.
Jn. 19:32 Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and of the
other who had been crucified with him.
Jn. 19:33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they
did not break his legs.
Jn. 19:34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once
blood and water came out.
Jn. 19:35 (He who saw this has testified so that you also may believe. His
testimony is true, and he knows that he tells the truth.)
Jn. 19:36 These things occurred so that the scripture might be fulfilled, "None
of his bones shall be broken."
Jn. 19:37 And again another passage of scripture says, "They will look on the
one whom they have pierced."
Jn. 19:38 After these things, Joseph of Arimathea, who was a disciple of
Jesus, though a secret one because of his fear of the Jews, asked Pilate to let
him take away the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission; so he came and
removed his body.

Jn. 19:39 Nicodemus, who had at first come to Jesus by night, also came,
bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, weighing about a hundred pounds.
Jn. 19:40 They took the body of Jesus and wrapped it with the spices in linen
cloths, according to the burial custom of the Jews.
Jn. 19:41 Now there was a garden in the place where he was crucified, and in
the garden there was a new tomb in which no one had ever been laid.
Jn. 19:42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of Preparation, and the tomb
was nearby, they laid Jesus there.

GREEK: John 18:1 – 19: 42

1Ταῦτα εἰπὼν Ἰησοῦς ἐξῆλθεν σὺν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ πέραν τοῦ χειμάρρου τοῦ Κεδρὼν ὅπου ἦν κῆπος, εἰς ὃν εἰσῆλθεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 2ᾔδει δὲ καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν τὸν τόπον, ὅτι πολλάκις συνήχθη Ἰησοῦς ἐκεῖ μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ. 3ὁ οὖν Ἰούδας λαβὼν τὴν σπεῖραν καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων ὑπηρέτας ἔρχεται ἐκεῖ μετὰ φανῶν καὶ λαμπάδων καὶ ὅπλων. 4Ἰησοῦς οὖν εἰδὼς πάντα τὰ ἐρχόμενα ἐπ∍ αὐτὸν ἐξῆλθεν καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Τίνα ζητεῖτε; 5ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ, Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον. λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἐγώ εἰμι. εἱστήκει δὲ καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν μετ∍ αὐτῶν. 6ὡς οὖν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἐγώ εἰμι, ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω καὶ ἔπεσαν χαμαί. 7πάλιν οὖν ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτούς, Τίνα ζητεῖτε; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον. 8ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Εἶπον ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι: εἰ οὖν ἐμὲ ζητεῖτε, ἄφετε τούτους ὑπάγειν: 9ἵνα πληρωθῇ ὁ λόγος ὃν εἶπεν ὅτι Οὓς δέδωκάς μοι οὐκ ἀπώλεσα ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐδένα. 10Σίμων οὖν Πέτρος ἔχων μάχαιραν εἵλκυσεν αὐτὴν καὶ ἔπαισεν τὸν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως δοῦλον καὶ ἀπέκοψεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτάριον τὸ δεξιόν. ἦν δὲ ὄνομα τῷ δούλῳ Μάλχος. 11εἶπεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ Πέτρῳ, Βάλε τὴν μάχαιραν εἰς τὴν θήκην: τὸ ποτήριον ὃ δέδωκέν μοι ὁ πατὴρ οὐ μὴ πίω αὐτό; 12Ἡ οὖν σπεῖρα καὶ ὁ χιλίαρχος καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται τῶν Ἰουδαίων συνέλαβον τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸν 13καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ανναν πρῶτον:

ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καϊάφα, ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου: 14ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ. 15Ἠκολούθει δὲ τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ ἄλλος μαθητής. ὁ δὲ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ἦν γνωστὸς τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ, καὶ συνεισῆλθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, 16ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἱστήκει πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ ἔξω. ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος ὁ γνωστὸς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θυρωρῷ καὶ εἰσήγαγεν τὸν Πέτρον. 17λέγει οὖν τῷ Πέτρῳ ἡ παιδίσκη ἡ θυρωρός, Μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν εἶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; λέγει ἐκεῖνος, Οὐκ εἰμί. 18εἱστήκεισαν δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἀνθρακιὰν πεποιηκότες, ὅτι ψῦχος ἦν, καὶ ἐθερμαίνοντο: ἦν δὲ καὶ ὁ Πέτρος μετ∍ αὐτῶν ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος. 19Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ. 20ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ: ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται, καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν. 21τί με ἐρωτᾷς; ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς: ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ. 22ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰπών, Οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ; 23ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς, Εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα, μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ: εἰ δὲ καλῶς, τί με δέρεις; 24ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Αννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα. 25∗)=ην δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος. εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ, Μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ; ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν, Οὐκ εἰμί. 26λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον, Οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετ∍ αὐτοῦ; 27πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος: καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν. 28Ἄγουσιν οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καϊάφα εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον: ἦν δὲ πρωΐ: καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον, ἵνα μὴ μιανθῶσιν ἀλλὰ φάγωσιν τὸ πάσχα. 29ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἔξω πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ φησίν, Τίνα κατηγορίαν φέρετε [κατὰ] τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; 30ἀπεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ, Εἰ μὴ ἦν οὗτος κακὸν ποιῶν, οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν. 31εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑμῶν κρίνατε αὐτόν. εἶπον αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, Ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔξεστιν ἀποκτεῖναι οὐδένα: 32ἵνα ὁ λόγος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πληρωθῇ ὃν εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ ἤμελλεν ἀποθνῄσκειν. 33Εἰσῆλθεν οὖν πάλιν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἐφώνησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 34ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ

σὺ τοῦτο λέγεις ἢ ἄλλοι εἶπόν σοι περὶ ἐμοῦ; 35ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Μήτι ἐγὼ Ἰουδαῖός εἰμι; τὸ ἔθνος τὸ σὸν καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς παρέδωκάν σε ἐμοί: τί ἐποίησας; 36ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου: εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή, οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο [ἄν], ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις: νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν. 37εἶπεν οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Οὐκοῦν βασιλεὺς εἶ σύ; ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Σὺ λέγεις ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι. ἐγὼ εἰς τοῦτο γεγέννημαι καὶ εἰς τοῦτο ἐλήλυθα εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ἵνα μαρτυρήσω τῇ ἀληθείᾳ: πᾶς ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀκούει μου τῆς φωνῆς. 38λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια; Καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν πάλιν ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἐγὼ οὐδεμίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 39ἔστιν δὲ συνήθεια ὑμῖν ἵνα ἕνα ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ πάσχα: βούλεσθε οὖν ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 40ἐκραύγασαν οὖν πάλιν λέγοντες, Μὴ τοῦτον ἀλλὰ τὸν Βαραββᾶν. ἦν δὲ ὁ Βαραββᾶς λῃστής.

19: 1 - 1Τότε οὖν ἔλαβεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐμαστίγωσεν. 2καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται πλέξαντες στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῦ τῇ κεφαλῇ, καὶ ἱμάτιον πορφυροῦν περιέβαλον αὐτόν, 3καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἔλεγον, Χαῖρε, ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων: καὶ ἐδίδοσαν αὐτῷ ῥαπίσματα. 4Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πάλιν ἔξω ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἴδε ἄγω ὑμῖν αὐτὸν ἔξω, ἵνα γνῶτε ὅτι οὐδεμίαν αἰτίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ. 5ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔξω, φορῶν τὸν ἀκάνθινον στέφανον καὶ τὸ πορφυροῦν ἱμάτιον. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄνθρωπος. 6ὅτε οὖν εἶδον αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες, Σταύρωσον σταύρωσον. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς καὶ σταυρώσατε, ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐχ εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 7ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, Ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὀφείλει ἀποθανεῖν, ὅτι υἱὸν θεοῦ ἑαυτὸν ἐποίησεν. 8Οτε οὖν ἤκουσεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τοῦτον τὸν λόγον, μᾶλλον ἐφοβήθη, 9καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον πάλιν καὶ λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ, Πόθεν εἶ σύ; ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀπόκρισιν οὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ. 10λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Ἐμοὶ οὐ λαλεῖς; οὐκ οἶδας ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχω ἀπολῦσαί σε καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω σταυρῶσαί σε; 11ἀπεκρίθη [αὐτῷ] Ἰησοῦς, Οὐκ εἶχες ἐξουσίαν κατ' ἐμοῦ οὐδεμίαν εἰ μὴ ἦν δεδομένον σοι ἄνωθεν: διὰ τοῦτο ὁ παραδούς μέ σοι μείζονα ἁμαρτίαν ἔχει. 12ἐκ τούτου ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἐζήτει ἀπολῦσαι αὐτόν: οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες, Ἐὰν τοῦτον ἀπολύσῃς, οὐκ εἶ φίλος τοῦ Καίσαρος: πᾶς ὁ βασιλέα ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν ἀντιλέγει τῷ Καίσαρι. 13Ὁ οὖν Πιλᾶτος ἀκούσας τῶν λόγων τούτων ἤγαγεν ἔξω τὸν Ἰησοῦν,

καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπὶ βήματος εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Λιθόστρωτον, Ἑβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθα. 14ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα, ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη. καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, Ἴδε ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν. 15ἐκραύγασαν οὖν ἐκεῖνοι, *)=αρον ἆρον, σταύρωσον αὐτόν. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τὸν βασιλέα ὑμῶν σταυρώσω; ἀπεκρίθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς, Οὐκ ἔχομεν βασιλέα εἰ μὴ Καίσαρα. 16τότε οὖν παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σταυρωθῇ. Παρέλαβον οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν: 17καὶ βαστάζων ἑαυτῷ τὸν σταυρὸν ἐξῆλθεν εἰς τὸν λεγόμενον Κρανίου Τόπον, ὃ λέγεται Ἑβραϊστὶ Γολγοθα, 18ὅπου αὐτὸν ἐσταύρωσαν, καὶ μετ' αὐτοῦ ἄλλους δύο ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐντεῦθεν, μέσον δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν. 19ἔγραψεν δὲ καὶ τίτλον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἔθηκεν ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ: ἦν δὲ γεγραμμένον, Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων. 20τοῦτον οὖν τὸν τίτλον πολλοὶ ἀνέγνωσαν τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ὅτι ἐγγὺς ἦν ὁ τόπος τῆς πόλεως ὅπου ἐσταυρώθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς: καὶ ἦν γεγραμμένον Ἑβραϊστί, Ῥωμαϊστί, Ἑλληνιστί. 21ἔλεγον οὖν τῷ Πιλάτῳ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, Μὴ γράφε, Ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἀλλ' ὅτι ἐκεῖνος εἶπεν, Βασιλεύς εἰμι τῶν Ἰουδαίων. 22ἀπεκρίθη ὁ
Πιλᾶτος, Ὃ γέγραφα, γέγραφα. 23Οἱ οὖν στρατιῶται ὅτε ἐσταύρωσαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἔλαβον τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐποίησαν τέσσαρα μέρη, ἑκάστῳ στρατιώτῃ μέρος, καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα. ἦν δὲ ὁ χιτὼν ἄραφος, ἐκ τῶν ἄνωθεν ὑφαντὸς δι' ὅλου. 24εἶπαν οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους, Μὴ σχίσωμεν αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ λάχωμεν περὶ αὐτοῦ τίνος ἔσται: ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ [ἡ λέγουσα], Διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον. Οἱ μὲν οὖν στρατιῶται ταῦτα ἐποίησαν. 25εἱστήκεισαν δὲ παρὰ τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀδελφὴ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Κλωπᾶ καὶ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή. 26Ἰησοῦς οὖν ἰδὼν τὴν μητέρα καὶ τὸν μαθητὴν παρεστῶτα ὃν ἠγάπα, λέγει τῇ μητρί, Γύναι, ἴδε ὁ υἱός σου. 27εἶτα λέγει τῷ μαθητῇ, Ἴδε ἡ μήτηρ σου. καὶ ἀπ' ἐκείνης τῆς ὥρας ἔλαβεν ὁ μαθητὴς αὐτὴν εἰς τὰ ἴδια. 28Μετὰ τοῦτο εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤδη πάντα τετέλεσται, ἵνα τελειωθῇ ἡ γραφή, λέγει, Διψῶ. 29σκεῦος ἔκειτο ὄξους μεστόν: σπόγγον οὖν μεστὸν τοῦ ὄξους ὑσσώπῳ περιθέντες προσήνεγκαν αὐτοῦ τῷ στόματι. 30ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, Τετέλεσται: καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλὴν παρέδωκεν τὸ πνεῦμα. 31Οἱ οὖν Ἰουδαῖοι, ἐπεὶ παρασκευὴ ἦν, ἵνα μὴ μείνῃ ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ τὰ σώματα ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ, ἦν γὰρ μεγάλη ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνου τοῦ σαββάτου, ἠρώτησαν τὸν Πιλᾶτον ἵνα κατεαγῶσιν αὐτῶν τὰ σκέλη καὶ ἀρθῶσιν. 32ἦλθον οὖν οἱ στρατιῶται, καὶ τοῦ μὲν πρώτου κατέαξαν τὰ σκέλη καὶ τοῦ ἄλλου τοῦ συσταυρωθέντος αὐτῷ: 33ἐπὶ δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐλθόντες, ὡς εἶδον ἤδη αὐτὸν τεθνηκότα, οὐ κατέαξαν αὐτοῦ τὰ σκέλη, 34ἀλλ' εἷς τῶν στρατιωτῶν λόγχῃ αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευρὰν ἔνυξεν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν εὐθὺς αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ.

35καὶ ὁ ἑωρακὼς μεμαρτύρηκεν, καὶ ἀληθινὴ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ μαρτυρία, καὶ ἐκεῖνος οἶδεν ὅτι ἀληθῆ λέγει, ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς πιστεύ[ς]ητε. 36ἐγένετο γὰρ ταῦτα ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ, Ὀστοῦν οὐ συντριβήσεται αὐτοῦ. 37καὶ πάλιν ἑτέρα γραφὴ λέγει, Ὄψονται εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν. 38Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἠρώτησεν τὸν Πιλᾶτον Ἰωσὴφ [ὁ] ἀπὸ Ἁριμαθαίας, ὢν μαθητὴς τοῦ Ἰησοῦ κεκρυμμένος δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἵνα ἄρῃ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ: καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος. ἦλθεν οὖν καὶ ἦρεν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ. 39ἦλθεν δὲ καὶ Νικόδημος, ὁ ἐλθὼν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς τὸ πρῶτον, φέρων μίγμα σμύρνης καὶ ἀλόης ὡς λίτρας ἑκατόν. 40ἔλαβον οὖν τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸ ὀθονίοις μετὰ τῶν ἀρωμάτων, καθὼς ἔθος ἐστὶν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ἐνταφιάζειν. 41ἦν δὲ ἐν τῷ τόπῳ ὅπου ἐσταυρώθη κῆπος, καὶ ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μνημεῖον καινὸν ἐν ᾧ οὐδέπω οὐδεὶς ἦν τεθειμένος: 42ἐκεῖ οὖν διὰ τὴν παρασκευὴν τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ὅτι ἐγγὺς ἦν τὸ μνημεῖον, ἔθηκαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν.

2. ANALYSIS: John 18:1 -- 19-42

Jn. 18:3 - speiran - This Roman term for cohort implies that there were soldiers
of Pilate involved in the arrest.
Jn. 18:6 - ego eimi...apelthan eis ta hopiso dai epesan chamai - Jesus' presence
and his proclamation of it stuns his attackers.
Jn. 18:9 - plerothe...The fulfillment of prophecy is a recurrent theme in this
passion narrative. Here Jesus probably refers ato his own statement in John
Jn. 18:11 - to poterion ho dedoken moi ho pater, ou me pio auto - The rhetorical
phrasing of what was a genuine question in the synoptics calls for a positive
response, "Yes, you shall."
Jn. 18:15 - allos mathetes...gnostos to archierei - How another disciple of Jesus
could have made it into the priest's court when Peter didn't is problematic.

Possible "others" are: 1) The Beloved Disciple [because of closeness to Jesus,
association with Peter, presence at the cross].;
The improbability of the Beloved Disciple begin allowed to enter gives rise to
three others: 2) an unknown, 3) Judas, and 4) Nicodemus.
Jn. 18:19 - peri ton matheton autou kai peri tes didaches autou - This is John's
only recorded questioning by the temple authorities, who seek to ascertain how
subversive as well as how blasphemous Jesus is. Note that Jesus avoids the
question of his disciples, and stands on his public record of teaching (v. 20).
Jn. 18:29 - Pilatos - John first mentions Pilate here without identifying him as
governor. The tradition of Pilate's humanity and concern for Jesus is unlikely,
given the presence of Roman soldiers at the arrest. Pilate's question in verse
29 (tina kategorian pherete tou anthropou toutou) is formal rather than
Jn. 18:31 - kai kata ton nomon hymon krinate auton - Scholars debate whether
the Jewish authorities did have capital powers. The state had jurisdiction over
political crimes.
Jn. 18:32 - plerothe - See John 18:9.
Jn. 18:33-6 - basileus - Pilate and Jesus use the same word, king, but with
entirely different meanings.
Jn. 18:37 - ego eis touto gegennemai - Jesus explains his destiny.
Jn. 18:37-8 - aletheias - Again, Pilate and Jesus have vastly different meanings
for the same word, truth.
Jn. 19:7 - uion theou - This is the theological accusation.

Jn. 19:8 - mallon - We haven' heard of fear previously, though here it is
reported to have increased. Is it a fear of hearing the truth, or of facing the
Jn. 19:10-11 - exousian - Jesus and Pilate use the word for power in difference
senses also.
Jn. 19:12 - philos tou kaisaros - An official title meaning "friend of Caesar."
Jn. 19:16 - paredoken - Pilate judges and sentences Jesus.
Jn. 19:17 - Heauto - It was standard for a condemned person to carry the
Jn. 19:24 - Note here the need to fulfill scripture.
Jn. 19:25b - Note the faithful women, para to stauro.
Jn. 19:26-7 - ide - Jesus uses the same word, behold, to Mary and the Beloved
disciple in this adoption formula. A new reality is coming into being.
Jn. 19:28 - dipso - Even this apparent expression of weakness is turned into a
triumphant fulfillment of scripture.
Jn. 19:30 - tetelestai - "accomplished" ; paredoken to pneuma - The same word
is used for Pilate handing over Jesus in 19:16. The emphasis here is on Jesus'
volition in his own death.
Jn. 19:34 - aima kai hydor - Only John reports this, which may be part of the
symbolism of the crucified Christ.
Jn. 19:36 - plerothe - Again scripture is fulfilled. Jesus is as an unblemished
Passover lamb.

3. STRATEGY: John 18:1 - 19:42
Good Friday is the most solemn day of the church year. Many churches
observe it with special services such as Stations of the Cross, Tenebrae or
meditation on the Seven Last Words. Virtually every church member, however
peripheral, knows the story of Good Friday. But most people, lay and clergy
alike, when asked to tell the story of Jesus' Passion, will give an syncretistic
Good Friday is thus like Christmas in that we mix the various Gospel
accounts with legends in our memories. Many Good Friday services
encourage a blended view of the various Gospel accounts. There is nothing
wrong with being conversant with the various versions of the Passion of Jesus.
Each gospel is rich in detail and perspective, and to leave any one of them out
is to lose a great deal. However, to know the story and to hear it proclaimed
only as an amalgam is to do disservice to the theological perspectives of the
four Gospel writers.

It is not a random accident, therefore, that John's Passion account is used on Good Friday. Passion Sunday alternates among the Synoptics, but Good Friday remains Johannine. Reading the Synoptics, we may wonder with the child, "What is so good about Good Friday?" The answer given to that question in
John's Gospel is an essential preaching point, especially if one chooses to be
Biblical and not simply narrative on Good Friday. Good Friday is good,
according to John, because Jesus is completely in control of his own destiny.

Together with God he plans and implements everything for our salvation.
From his confident striding onto the Mount of Olives, to his spirited debates
with Pilate, to his final words on the cross, Jesus is in charge. There is no
room for our pity here. Even to wallow in our own
sinfulness is self-indulgent and not the point of the Gospel. The drama that we
witness is God's will, even the seemingly incongruous details. All attempts to
humiliate Jesus glorify him. All attempts to discredit him acclaim him.
The preacher's Good Friday challenge is to proclaim the Johannine triumph
while maintaining the solemnity of the day. The victory on the cross is total,
but it is not without cost. God is the playwright, and Jesus the star in this
drama, yet the stage (for at least the Passion) is the world. One cannot
interpret this drama completely without contemplating the world's role in it.
The Passion of Jesus is about humanity's rejection and destruction of God. It is
about the religious establishment colluding with the state to resist God's will.
It is about human nature, free will. It is about historic events, and about a
continuing human tendency. It is about them, and about us, a point made
dramatically clear when the Passion is done by congregational reading and the
people are called on to say "Crucify, crucify!"

Brown, Raymond E. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN (xiii-xxi). THE
ANCHOR BIBLE. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970.
Bultmann, Rudolf. THE GOSPEL OF JOHN. Philadelphia: Westminster,

Worship leaders are encouraged to plan Good Friday observances taking
great care to convey the triumph and the dignity of John's Passion account. On
this day, the Eucharist for once is not appropriate. It is to be saved for the
Easter Vigil, or Easter, as the culmination. Good Friday remains quiet,
watching and waiting. We are like the women at the foot of the cross,
witnessing the pain, awaiting the new community.
Some helpful comments for worship preparation are given by Philip H.
Lutheran Book of Worship, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1979,
pp. 320-326.

Exegete – Bishhop Jessica Crist-Graybill | Missoula, Montana

While church music for this day is normally restrained (no entrance hymn or
recessional hymn, e.g.) some hymns that may be appropriate for meditation
include the following:


O SACRED HEAD (ELW 351-2, HB 168/9, LBW 116/7)
THERE IS A GREEN HILL FAR AWAY (HB 167, omit st. 3,4; LBW 114),




[ For services other than the Vigil of Easter ]
Job 14:1-14 or Lamentations 3:1-9, 19-24
Psalm 31:1-4, 15-16
1 Peter 4:1-8
Matthew 27:57-66 or John 19:38-42

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