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Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Annual Updike Poem

The following poems needs little or no
introduction. It appeared in Telephone Poles
and Other Poems (Knopf, 1963).

I first saw it in the Christian Century in
the late Sixties. It appears the ever-prescient
Updike was thirty years, more or less, ahead of the
Human Genome & “Faith & Science Dialogues”
--though I do recall meetings of the “Faith/Man/Nature”
Group back then at Uni-Lu in Cambridge!
As best I can recall, Updike first read this in
public at an arts festival in the Lutheran Church
in Marblehead, MA. Resurrexit est !

+ + +
+ D.B. 4.2.10



Make no mistake: if He rose at all
it was as His body;
if the cell’s dissolution did not reverse,
the molecules reknit,
the amino acids rekindle,
the Church will fall.

It was not as the flowers,
each soft spring recurrent;
it was not as His Spirit in the mouths
and fuddled eyes of the eleven apostles;
it was as His flesh: ours.

The same hinged thumbs and toes,
the same valved heart
that--pierced--died; withered paused, and then regathered
out of enduring Might
new strength to enclose.

Let us not mock God with metaphor,
analogy, sidestepping, transcendence,
making of the event a parable,
a sign painted in the faded credulity of earlier ages:
let us walk through the door.

The stone is rolled back, not papier-maché,
not a stone in a story,
but the vast rock of materiality
that in the slow grinding of
time will eclipse for each of us
the wide light of day.

And if we will have an angel at the tomb,
make it a real angel,
weighty with Max Planck’s quanta, vivid with hair,
opaque in the dawn light, robed in real linen,
spun on a definite loom.

Let us not seek to make it less monstrous,
for our own convenience, our own sense of beauty,
lest, awakened in one unthinkable hour,
we are embarrassed by the miracle,
and crushed by remonstrance.

--John Updike
copyright 1963, from COLLECTED POEMS
(NY: Knopf, 1994), pp. 20f.


E A S T E R , 2010 + ALLELUIA !!!

RESURRECTION OF OUR LORD | Vigil of Easter | April 1, 2010

First Reading: Genesis 1:1–2:4a
Response: Psalm 136:1-9, 23-36

Second Reading: Genesis 7:1-5, 11-18, 8:6-18, 9:8-13
Response: Psalm 46

Testing of Abraham
Third Reading: Genesis 22:1-18
Response: Psalm 16

Deliverance at the Red Sea
Fourth Reading: Exodus 14:10-31; 15:20-21
Response: Exodus 15:1b-13, 17-18

Salvation Freely Offered to All
Fifth Reading: Isaiah 55:1-11
Response: Isaiah 12:2-6

The Wisdom of God
Sixth Reading: Proverbs 8:1-8, 19-21; 9:4b-6 or Baruch 3:9-15, 32–4:4
Response: Psalm 19

A New Heart and a New Spirit
Seventh Reading: Ezekiel 36:24-28
Response: Psalm 42 and Psalm 43

Valley of the Dry Bones
Eighth Reading: Ezekiel 37:1-14
Response: Psalm 143

Gathering of God's People
Ninth Reading: Zephaniah 3:14-20
Response: Psalm 98
Call of Jonah
Tenth Reading: Jonah 1:1–2:1
Response: Jonah 2:2-3 [4-6] 7-9
Clothed in the Garments of Salvation
Eleventh Reading: Isaiah 61:1-4, 9-11
Response: Deuteronomy 32:1-4, 7, 36a, 43a

Deliverance from the Fiery Furnace
Twelfth Reading: Daniel 3:1-29
Response: Song of the Three Young Men 35-65

New Testament Reading / Romans 6:3-11
Gospel / John 20:1-18

< Lexegete >

RESURRECTION OF OUR LORD | Easter Day | April 4, 1010

Acts 10:34-43 or Isaiah 65:17-25

Psalm 118:1-2, 14-24 (Ps. 118:24)

1 Corinthians 15:19-26 or Acts 10:34-43

Luke 24:1-12 or John 20:1-18

1. CONTEXT: Luke 24:1-12

Easter is, in its purest form, the celebration by the people of God
of the victory of God. Thus, by its very nature, Easter lends itself
to triumphalism and an almost overbearing sense of joy. And yet so
many Easter liturgies express little of the joy and even less of the
triumph, particularly when the occasion becomes a celebration
of l'sacre du printemps ala Stravinsky's Rite of Spring --though even
that secular flavoring might rouse the jaded masses to their feet!
If we tend to miss the mark at Easter, it is more often than not because
we have lost some crucial theological thread or link with its origins.
We need to remember, first of all, that Easter originates not in the early
Church's anxiety over its own survival in the Afterlife. Rather, it is born in the
New Passover, the paschal mystery that says: Christ is risen. Christ is risen
indeed. Hallelujah!!

This affirmation is not voiced as a theological argument, but as a stunning
declaration of faith, one which the early Christians found to be somehow
continuous with Jesus' own Jewish background. Hence they likely continued
to celebrate shabbat on Saturday, the seventh day, as well as the new Christian
celebration on the first day of the week, the Day of Resurrection. For them
Easter was not a yearly but a weekly celebration of God's victory in Christ's
Resurrection. Yet within a century the question began to be asked, shall we
also celebrate this victory on an annual basis?

The ensuing discussion went on for centuries until finally the Western church
accepted an Easter date based on the Roman Gregorian solar calendar. The
Eastern churches, on the other hand, adopted an Easter date based on the Julian
calendar. Perhaps someday we shall see these dates converging in some sort of
compromise, since there really are no compelling theological reasons why they
should differ.

Beyond the dating of Easter and its celebration each Sunday is the even
larger question of its significance for ordinary Christians. Although we are apt
to think of Advent/Christmas/Epiphany as the "Incarnational"
moment in the church year, Easter commingles our faith in the utterly
concrete, earthly surroundings with our spiritual hopes in their most
sublime,transcendent form. The result is a celebration, a moment and a season
every bit as "Incarnational" as Christmas itself. Perhaps this is where so many
Easter liturgies go awry, for we seem to pit the earthiness of Easter against its
heavenly aspect. One extreme is the highly theologized and intellectual
approach to Easter which attempts to explain or even rationalize the Empty
Tomb; the other extreme is the sentimental incantation of "Alleluias" as if we
ourselves had it within us to win the victory.
Luke,however, underscores the simplicity and Grace at the heart of Easter,
for his telling of the paschal story stresses human fallibility, weakness and
skepticism in contrast to the victory of God. The tone is intimate and touching:
he portrays the disciples as they were and no doubt as we ourselves would have
been in the context. When confronted with the startling news from "the women
(at least three are named) who had followed Jesus from Galilee," the eleven
men refused to believe such "nonsense" and likely ridiculed them.

Only Peter went to see for himself what they had reported. Thus the church's first
experience of Resurrection comes not in a stirring trumpet blast of theology,
but rather in the simple faith of simple women, the first witnesses to the Empty
Tomb. The church's Easter faith is born not in the martyrdom or militant
spirit of the disciples, but in their doubt and confusion. This,
surprisingly, is the context for Luke's story of the Easter good news. One
can hardly see the method or logic in the pericopes which appear in
various Lectionary patterns excluding Luke 24:11-12 from this passage. To do so
is to miss two of the essentials of the Resurrection story: a) the denial at first of the
Risen Lord by the apostles, contrasted with b) Peter’s dawning awareness of the
Empty tomb and its meaning for Christ’s followers.

2. ANALYSIS: Luke 24:1-12

Although this passage is in somewhat straightforward Greek, it nevertheless
contains several interesting word usages, a few of which are peculiar to Luke:
Lk. 24:1 - orthros batheos - very early in the morning, i.e. at dawn,
hence the notion of a sunrise liturgy; orthros is used only twice in the
New Testament.
Lk. 24:1 - aroma - literally, perfumed spices, perhaps myrrh among them.
Lk. 24:4 - aporeo - to be in a state of uncertainty or doubt, at a loss
Lk. 24: 4- astraptousei - a brilliant flash of blinding light
Lk. 24:5 - emphobon - filled with terror or fright
Lk. 24:5 - klinouson - to bow down or bend over
Lk. 24:11 - ephanesan - connotes the appearance of things, but not reality,
as if what the women saw was a sort of mirage, wishful thinking

Lk. 24:11 - leiros - often translated "idle talk," but with a stronger connotation
of lacking credibility or truth (unique to Luke in this single occurrence of the
word in the New Testament)
Lk. 24:11 - epistoun - implies a refusal to believe the women
Lk. 24:12 - [this verse is omitted in some ancient manuscripts; see Greek text
for citations] - anastas - this verb, describing Peter "rising up"
to run to the tomb echoes the anasteinai in vs. 7, although it may not be a
deliberate literary device on Luke's any rate, the term reminds us that,
from this Day forward, life is permeated not with Death but with Resurrection.
Lk. 24:12 - thaumazon - literally, wondering what had taken place, though
more with a sense of trying to understand than wide-eyed wonderment

3. STRATEGY: Luke 24:1-12 / The Vigil of Easter

The fullest expression of this Day sees it in its liturgical and not merely
theological context as the climax of the Triduum, the three days of
Holy Thursday, Good Friday and Easter. These three are best viewed as a
liturgical three-in-one, a triune worship experience. Like the lengthy concerts
and films from which one is excused for an hour or more at a time to deal with
more mundane matters, these liturgies are continuous and connected. They
represent, sans any benediction or paschal blessing until the Easter service,
what Paul F. Bosch has called "the unbroken center of our whole year's work
and prayer" (Church Year Guide, p. 32).

Yet these are celebrations and not performances (though the two are not
always or in all places mutually exclusive). We need to be careful lest these
services become an occasion for wretched excess and ridiculous overstatement
when a simple reading of the Word will do nicely. Where the celebration of
either Holy Thursday or Good Friday has been truncated in some fashion (one
hears many reports of this in various churches), it is up to the presiding liturgists, pastors and others to engage in liturgical education.

The Vigil of Easter is an ideal service for introduction in parishes who may
have somehow numbed themselves to the power of the Easter Liturgy.
Excellent guidelines are found in the Book of Common Prayer (pp. 284- 295).
Others were found in the February, 1989, issue of Worship (Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America, 8765 W. Higgins Rd., Chicago, IL 60631-4188),
written by liturgical expert S. Anita Stauffer, as well as in the Minister's Edition
of the LUTHERAN BOOK OF WORSHIP (1978), pp. 143-153. Lectionary
listings are also given in Peter C. Bower's HANDBOOK FOR THE COMMON
LECTIONARY (1987, pp. 221-4).

Still more notes on the Vigil are found in Gabe Huck's THE THREE
DAYS (Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 1981) and in A TRIDUUM
SOURCEBOOK, ed. G. Huck and Mary Ann Simcoe (Chicago: Liturgy
Training Publications, 1983). The Roman Catholic publisher, Pueblo, has
issued CELEBRATING THE EASTER VIGIL, edited by R. Berger and H.
Hollenweger, 1983. A new arrival (which we have not seen) is AN EASTER
SOURCEBOOK,ed. by Gabe Huck, Gail Ramshaw and Gordon Lathrop

(Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 1988). If it is anything like the earlier
sourcebooks from LTP, it will be well worth searching out!
All of these sourcebooks and guides stress the powerful imagery and action
of the Easter Vigil, which boldly contrasts life/death, light/darkness,
freedom/slavery. [For a discussion of the related theme of mystical
"abandonment" or Gelassnheit, see H.U. von Balthasar's provocative little
volume, LIFE OUT OF DEATH ] The Vigil begins in the darkness as a fire is
kindled. The BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER includes a beautiful
invocation, which sets the tone and expresses the meaning of the service that

"Dear friends in Christ, on this most holy night, in which our Lord Jesus
passed over from death to life, the Church invites her members, dispersed throughout the world, to gather in vigil and prayer. For this is the Passover of the Lord, in which, by hearing his Word and celebrating his Sacraments, we share in his victory over death" [B.C.P., p. 285].

The latrer LBW Easter Vigil included no such introduction:, but entered immediately into the kindling of new fire. The Paschal candle is lighted from this new
fire and the Vigil continues with a Procession and sharing of the light from the
Paschal candle. After the Easter Proclamation is read, there is a liturgy of the
Word consisting of either four, seven or usually twelve scripture lessons, and
ending with a Baptismal service or renewal of Baptismal vows (see BOOK OF
COMMON PRAYER, p. 292f.) and a liturgy of the Eucharist. Although this
may sound as if it would be a rather lengthy service, it is probably no longer
than the traditional Christmas Eve Service, and has an entirely different texture
and atmosphere.

The parallels with Israel, the Exodus and the Passover are quite striking and the sense of this as "a night unlike all other nights" is implicit throughout the readings and prayers. Of course, if all the readings are used, it is prudent to abbreviate or even omit the homily.

Yet, even if there is no opportunity to conduct the full Vigil on Easter Eve, it is
still possible to suggest some of the symbolism of the service in other ways,
possibly through an Easter Sunrise, beginning outside in semi-darkness and
moving indoors to greet the dawning daylight. As for the actual central
message of the homily, if there is one, it is important to stress the special nature
of Easter discussed above, but in liturgical rather than somber theological
terms. Otherwise, the occasion is reduced to "Happy Spring" (a greeting which
appears more and more in our secular Hallmark Easter Cards) or becomes a ponderous lecture on the imponderable wonder of the Resurrection. Several key themes suggest themselves in the text, Luke 24:1-12. These include the overall theme
of God's victory in and through the Resurrection. Krister Stendahl, in a sermon
delivered years ago noted that "it is important that we avoid making
a challenge in the wrong way. For how can one celebrate Easter asc a problem,
a problem? And it would be deeply wrong to celebrate one's own beliefs. At
Easter, we celebrate God's victory in and through and with his child Jesus"

(In Season, April 10, 1977, p. 1).

Accenting this view of Easter as the "liberation of liberations," and not a
celebration of our own spiritual athletics, Stendahl goes on to speak of the gift
of Easter... that "grows, it dawns upon us when we are ready, in God's time"
(ibid., p. 3). Finally, he contrasts the devotion of the women to Jesus with the
almost callous depiction of the men as hard-headed, pragmatic churchmen.
The point is not to generalize about gender, but to emphasize that "it is in the
climate of that love rather than in the precision of our belief that faith grows."
These words are as powerful and inspiring when seen in the context of the
entire Easter liturgy, the entire Gospel.

For then we can recognize that Easter is not our show to perform, but
God's event, God's miracle which can experience even if we cannot fully
grasp it. It takes us into God's own grasp.

And we, too, are drawn to the wonder and mystery of the dark, silent empty
grave by our love for God's beloved Son. May this entire Easter Season be for you
and your congregation, for us all, a time of deeply authentic renewal and

4. Hymn Suggestions: Luke 14:1-12

As John Nieman noted in his exegesis for Matthew 28:1-10, there is an abundance of hymns available for this festival, but two are here suggested because they are not usually listed under the category of Easter Hymn. "At the Lamb's High Feast" (LBW #210,HB 174) contains references to the Sacrament and to Easter, and being set to a catchy old German folk tune, it is a pleasure to sing.

"Jesus Christ My Sure Defense" (LBW 340) catches the spirit of this text; it was once described as a "masterpiece of Christian poetry" and was part of a publication intended to bring unity between Lutheran and Reformed communions. And, of course, "Hail Thee, Festival Day" ( LBW 142, HB 175) and "Jesus Christ is ris'n today" (LBW 151, HB 207) are standard at Easter.

5. References: Luke 14:1-12

Bainton, Roland, ed. Martin Luther’s Easter Book. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Press, 1983.

Huck,Gabe. The Three Days. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications,1981.
________, and Mary Ann Simcoe,eds. A Triduum Sourcebook. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 1983.

________, Gail Ramshaw and Gordon Lathrop. An Easter Sourcebook. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 1988.

Lathrop, Gordon, and Gail Ramshaw,eds. LECTIONARY FOR THE CHRISTIAN PEOPLE, Cycle C, NY: Pueblo & Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.

Stauffer, S. Anita. "The Vigil of Easter," in Worship '89 (February), Division for Congregational Life: ELCA, 8765 West Higgins Road, Chicago,IL 60631.

Stendahl, Krister, "The Celebration of God's Victory (Luke 24:1-11)" IN SEASON v.3, n. 31,ed. by Richard E. Koenig, April 10, 1977, pp. 1-4.

von Balthasar, Hans Urs. LIFE OUT OF DEATH: Meditations on the Easter Mystery. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985, pp. 19-24.

Exegete - David Buehler, Ph.D. | Providence College (RI)

© 2010 Tischrede Software | Dartmouth, Massachusetts


Greek Bible Text:

Novum Testamentum Graece, Nestle-Aland 26th edition © 1979, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart;
The Greek New Testament, 3rd edition © 1975, United Bible Societies, London


The Holy Bible, English Standard Version copyright © 2001
by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

© 2010 Tischrede Software | Dartmouth, MA 02747-1925



Lexegete ™ GOOD FRIDAY | April 6, 2007
Isaiah 52:13—53:12
Psalm 22 (Ps. 22:1)
Hebrews 10:16-25 or Hebrews 4:14-16; 5:7-9
John 18:1—19:42
1. CONTEXT: John 18:1-19:37
Each of the four gospels has a passion account. These passion accounts are
thought to be representative of the earliest stories the church passe around.
They are certainly the longest sustained narratives that the Gospel writers
inherited. In the passion narrative the Gospel of John comes closer to the
Synoptics than in any other place. Despite the relative similarities in the four
accounts, internal evidence shows them to have different sources. The author
of John has used a different source from the sources used by the Synoptics.
Hence the variance in details in the different accounts can be attributed partly
to different sources and partly to different theological intentions of the Gospel
writers. But the case if the Johannine passion account, a clear theological
perspective and a source with different details make it, as usual, more different
from the Synoptics than they are from each other.

Given that the Gospel for the Sunday of the Passion is the Lukan passion
narrative, it would be helpful to review major points of comparison between the
Lukan and Johannine accounts. In John's Gospel, the passion narrative follows
the rather lengthy Farewell discourses, which include some of the incidents and

details that being Luke's passion narrative (Last Supper, prediction of betrayal,
prediction of denial). John's passion begins abruptly, with Jesus leading his
disciples across the Valley of Kidron to a garden, whereupon they immediately
encounter the mob. Luke places it on the Mount of Olives, and includes the
agony of prayer and the sleeping disciples. John's mob includes both state and
religious police, Luke's mentions only religious. John names the injured slaves
and mentions a relative. Luke has Jesus heal the slave.

In the judicial process, John has Jesus taken to Annas (where he is
accompanied by "another disciple," while Peter is left behind). He then goes to
Caiphas, and then to Pilate, before whom there is a lengthy dialogue. Luke has
Jesus go to the high priest's house, the council of elders, Pilate, Herod, then
Pilate, before whom Jesus is relatively silent.

John's Jesus carries his own cross to the crucifixion. Pilate imposes his trilingual
proclamation. Jesus entrusts his mother and the Beloved Disciple to
each other. The women stand close the cross. Jesus declares his thirst, and
ends with, "It is finished." The soldiers do not break his legs, but do pierce his
side. Luke's account has Simon of Cyrene carry the cross. Jesus asks God to
forgive the tormentors. He has conversations with the criminals. His final
words are, "Into your hands I commend my spirit." Darkness and testimonials
follow his death. The faithful women stand afar.

1b. Text: John 18:1—19:41 (ESV)

Jn. 18:1 After Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples
across the Kidron valley to a place where there was a garden, which he and his
disciples entered.
Jn. 18:2 Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, because Jesus
often met there with his disciples.
Jn. 18:3 So Judas brought a detachment of soldiers together with police from
the chief priests and the Pharisees, and they came there with lanterns and
torches and weapons.
Jn. 18:4 Then Jesus, knowing all that was to happen to him, came forward and
asked them, "Whom are you looking for?"
Jn. 18:5 They answered, "Jesus of Nazareth." Jesus replied, "I am he." Judas,
who betrayed him, was standing with them.
Jn. 18:6 When Jesus said to them, "I am he," they stepped back and fell to the
Jn. 18:7 Again he asked them, "Whom are you looking for?" And they said,
"Jesus of Nazareth."
Jn. 18:8 Jesus answered, "I told you that I am he. So if you are looking for me,
let these men go."
Jn. 18:9 This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken, "I did not lose a
single one of those whom you gave me."
Jn. 18:10 Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it, struck the high priest's
slave, and cut off his right ear. The slave's name was Malchus.
Jn. 18:11 Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword back into its sheath. Am I not to
drink the cup that the Father has given me?"
Jn. 18:12 So the soldiers, their officer, and the Jewish police arrested Jesus
and bound him.
Jn. 18:13 First they took him to Annas, who was the father-in-law of
Caiaphas, the high priest that year.
Jn. 18:14 Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jews that it was better to
have one person die for the people.
Jn. 18:15 Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus. Since that disciple
was known to the high priest, he went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high
Jn. 18:16 but Peter was standing outside at the gate. So the other disciple, who
was known to the high priest, went out, spoke to the woman who guarded the
gate, and brought Peter in.
Jn. 18:17 The woman said to Peter, "You are not also one of this man's
disciples, are you?" He said, "I am not."
Jn. 18:18 Now the slaves and the police had made a charcoal fire because it
was cold, and they were standing around it and warming themselves. Peter also
was standing with them and warming himself.
Jn. 18:19 Then the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and about
his teaching.
Jn. 18:20 Jesus answered, "I have spoken openly to the world; I have always
taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all the Jews come together. I
have said nothing in secret.
Jn. 18:21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who heard what I said to them; they
know what I said."
Jn. 18:22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearby struck
Jesus on the face, saying, "Is that how you answer the high priest?"
Jn. 18:23 Jesus answered, "If I have spoken wrongly, testify to the wrong. But
if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?"
Jn. 18:24 Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Jn. 18:25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They asked
him, "You are not also one of his disciples, are you?" He denied it and said, "I
am not."
Jn. 18:26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relative of the man whose ear
Peter had cut off, asked, "Did I not see you in the garden with him?"
Jn. 18:27 Again Peter denied it, and at that moment the cock crowed.
Jn. 18:28 Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate's headquarters. It was
early in the morning. They themselves did not enter the headquarters, so as to
avoid ritual defilement and to be able to eat the Passover.
Jn. 18:29 So Pilate went out to them and said, "What accusation do you bring
against this man?"
Jn. 18:30 They answered, "If this man were not a criminal, we would not have
handed him over to you."
Jn. 18:31 Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves and judge him according
to your law." The Jews replied, "We are not permitted to put anyone to death."
Jn. 18:32 (This was to fulfill what Jesus had said when he indicated the kind
of death he was to die.)
Jn. 18:33 Then Pilate entered the headquarters again, summoned Jesus, and
asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"
Jn. 18:34 Jesus answered, "Do you ask this on your own, or did others tell you
about me?"
Jn. 18:35 Pilate replied, "I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief
priests have handed you over to me. What have you done?"
Jn. 18:36 Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not from this world. If my
kingdom were from this world, my followers would be fighting to keep me
from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here."
Jn. 18:37 Pilate asked him, "So you are a king?" Jesus answered, "You say
that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I came into the world, to
testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice."
Jn. 18:38 Pilate asked him, "What is truth?" After he had said this, he went out
to the Jews again and told them, "I find no case against him.
Jn. 18:39 But you have a custom that I release someone for you at the
Passover. Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?"
Jn. 18:40 They shouted in reply, "Not this man, but Barabbas!" Now Barabbas
was a bandit.
Jn. 19:1 Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged.
Jn. 19:2 And the soldiers wove a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and
they dressed him in a purple robe.
Jn. 19:3 They kept coming up to him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and
striking him on the face.
Jn. 19:4 Pilate went out again and said to them, "Look, I am bringing him out
to you to let you know that I find no case against him."
Jn. 19:5 So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe.
Pilate said to them, "Here is the man!"
Jn. 19:6 When the chief priests and the police saw him, they shouted, "Crucify
him! Crucify him!" Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves and crucify him;
I find no case against him."
Jn. 19:7 The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and according to that law
he ought to die because he has claimed to be the Son of God."
Jn. 19:8 Now when Pilate heard this, he was more afraid than ever.

Jn. 19:9 He entered his headquarters again and asked Jesus, "Where are you
from?" But Jesus gave him no answer.
Jn. 19:10 Pilate therefore said to him, "Do you refuse to speak to me? Do you
not know that I have power to release you, and power to crucify you?"
Jn. 19:11 Jesus answered him, "You would have no power over me unless it
had been given you from above; therefore the one who handed me over to you
is guilty of a greater sin."
Jn. 19:12 From then on Pilate tried to release him, but the Jews cried out, "If
you release this man, you are no friend of the emperor. Everyone who claims to
be a king sets himself against the emperor."
Jn. 19:13 When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus outside and sat on
the judge's bench at a place called The Stone Pavement, or in Hebrew
Jn. 19:14 Now it was the day of Preparation for the Passover; and it was about
noon. He said to the Jews, "Here is your King!"
Jn. 19:15 They cried out, "Away with him! Away with him! Crucify him!"
Pilate asked them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered,
"We have no king but the emperor."
Jn. 19:16 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. So they took
Jn. 19:17 and carrying the cross by himself, he went out to what is called The
Place of the Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.

Jn. 19:18 There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either
side, with Jesus between them.
Jn. 19:19 Pilate also had an inscription written and put on the cross. It read,
"Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews."
Jn. 19:20 Many of the Jews read this inscription, because the place where
Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin,
and in Greek.
Jn. 19:21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, `The
King of the Jews,' but, `This man said, I am King of the Jews.'"
Jn. 19:22 Pilate answered, "What I have written I have written."
Jn. 19:23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and
divided them into four parts, one for each soldier. They also took his tunic; now
the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from the top.
Jn. 19:24 So they said to one another, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to
see who will get it." This was to fulfill what the scripture says, "They divided
my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots."
Jn. 19:25 And that is what the soldiers did. Meanwhile, standing near the cross
of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and
Mary Magdalene.
Jn. 19:26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved
standing beside her, he said to his mother, "Woman, here is your son."
Jn. 19:27 Then he said to the disciple, "Here is your mother." And from that
hour the disciple took her into his own home.
Jn. 19:28 After this, when Jesus knew that all was now finished, he said (in
order to fulfill the scripture), "I am thirsty."
Jn. 19:29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there. So they put a sponge full
of the wine on a branch of hyssop and held it to his mouth.
Jn. 19:30 When Jesus had received the wine, he said, "It is finished." Then he
bowed his head and gave up his spirit.
Jn. 19:31 Since it was the day of Preparation, the Jews did not want the bodies
left on the cross during the sabbath, especially because that sabbath was a day
of great solemnity. So they asked Pilate to have the legs of the crucified men
broken and the bodies removed.
Jn. 19:32 Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and of the
other who had been crucified with him.
Jn. 19:33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they
did not break his legs.
Jn. 19:34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once
blood and water came out.
Jn. 19:35 (He who saw this has testified so that you also may believe. His
testimony is true, and he knows that he tells the truth.)
Jn. 19:36 These things occurred so that the scripture might be fulfilled, "None
of his bones shall be broken."
Jn. 19:37 And again another passage of scripture says, "They will look on the
one whom they have pierced."
Jn. 19:38 After these things, Joseph of Arimathea, who was a disciple of
Jesus, though a secret one because of his fear of the Jews, asked Pilate to let
him take away the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission; so he came and
removed his body.

Jn. 19:39 Nicodemus, who had at first come to Jesus by night, also came,
bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, weighing about a hundred pounds.
Jn. 19:40 They took the body of Jesus and wrapped it with the spices in linen
cloths, according to the burial custom of the Jews.
Jn. 19:41 Now there was a garden in the place where he was crucified, and in
the garden there was a new tomb in which no one had ever been laid.
Jn. 19:42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of Preparation, and the tomb
was nearby, they laid Jesus there.

GREEK: John 18:1 – 19: 42

1Ταῦτα εἰπὼν Ἰησοῦς ἐξῆλθεν σὺν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ πέραν τοῦ χειμάρρου τοῦ Κεδρὼν ὅπου ἦν κῆπος, εἰς ὃν εἰσῆλθεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 2ᾔδει δὲ καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν τὸν τόπον, ὅτι πολλάκις συνήχθη Ἰησοῦς ἐκεῖ μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ. 3ὁ οὖν Ἰούδας λαβὼν τὴν σπεῖραν καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων ὑπηρέτας ἔρχεται ἐκεῖ μετὰ φανῶν καὶ λαμπάδων καὶ ὅπλων. 4Ἰησοῦς οὖν εἰδὼς πάντα τὰ ἐρχόμενα ἐπ∍ αὐτὸν ἐξῆλθεν καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Τίνα ζητεῖτε; 5ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ, Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον. λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἐγώ εἰμι. εἱστήκει δὲ καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν μετ∍ αὐτῶν. 6ὡς οὖν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἐγώ εἰμι, ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω καὶ ἔπεσαν χαμαί. 7πάλιν οὖν ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτούς, Τίνα ζητεῖτε; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον. 8ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Εἶπον ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι: εἰ οὖν ἐμὲ ζητεῖτε, ἄφετε τούτους ὑπάγειν: 9ἵνα πληρωθῇ ὁ λόγος ὃν εἶπεν ὅτι Οὓς δέδωκάς μοι οὐκ ἀπώλεσα ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐδένα. 10Σίμων οὖν Πέτρος ἔχων μάχαιραν εἵλκυσεν αὐτὴν καὶ ἔπαισεν τὸν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως δοῦλον καὶ ἀπέκοψεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτάριον τὸ δεξιόν. ἦν δὲ ὄνομα τῷ δούλῳ Μάλχος. 11εἶπεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ Πέτρῳ, Βάλε τὴν μάχαιραν εἰς τὴν θήκην: τὸ ποτήριον ὃ δέδωκέν μοι ὁ πατὴρ οὐ μὴ πίω αὐτό; 12Ἡ οὖν σπεῖρα καὶ ὁ χιλίαρχος καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται τῶν Ἰουδαίων συνέλαβον τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸν 13καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ανναν πρῶτον:

ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καϊάφα, ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου: 14ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ. 15Ἠκολούθει δὲ τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ ἄλλος μαθητής. ὁ δὲ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ἦν γνωστὸς τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ, καὶ συνεισῆλθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, 16ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἱστήκει πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ ἔξω. ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος ὁ γνωστὸς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θυρωρῷ καὶ εἰσήγαγεν τὸν Πέτρον. 17λέγει οὖν τῷ Πέτρῳ ἡ παιδίσκη ἡ θυρωρός, Μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν εἶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; λέγει ἐκεῖνος, Οὐκ εἰμί. 18εἱστήκεισαν δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἀνθρακιὰν πεποιηκότες, ὅτι ψῦχος ἦν, καὶ ἐθερμαίνοντο: ἦν δὲ καὶ ὁ Πέτρος μετ∍ αὐτῶν ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος. 19Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ. 20ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ: ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται, καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν. 21τί με ἐρωτᾷς; ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς: ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ. 22ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰπών, Οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ; 23ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς, Εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα, μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ: εἰ δὲ καλῶς, τί με δέρεις; 24ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Αννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα. 25∗)=ην δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος. εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ, Μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ; ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν, Οὐκ εἰμί. 26λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον, Οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετ∍ αὐτοῦ; 27πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος: καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν. 28Ἄγουσιν οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καϊάφα εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον: ἦν δὲ πρωΐ: καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον, ἵνα μὴ μιανθῶσιν ἀλλὰ φάγωσιν τὸ πάσχα. 29ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἔξω πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ φησίν, Τίνα κατηγορίαν φέρετε [κατὰ] τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; 30ἀπεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ, Εἰ μὴ ἦν οὗτος κακὸν ποιῶν, οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν. 31εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑμῶν κρίνατε αὐτόν. εἶπον αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, Ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔξεστιν ἀποκτεῖναι οὐδένα: 32ἵνα ὁ λόγος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πληρωθῇ ὃν εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ ἤμελλεν ἀποθνῄσκειν. 33Εἰσῆλθεν οὖν πάλιν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἐφώνησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 34ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ

σὺ τοῦτο λέγεις ἢ ἄλλοι εἶπόν σοι περὶ ἐμοῦ; 35ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Μήτι ἐγὼ Ἰουδαῖός εἰμι; τὸ ἔθνος τὸ σὸν καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς παρέδωκάν σε ἐμοί: τί ἐποίησας; 36ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς, Ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου: εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή, οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο [ἄν], ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις: νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν. 37εἶπεν οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Οὐκοῦν βασιλεὺς εἶ σύ; ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Σὺ λέγεις ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι. ἐγὼ εἰς τοῦτο γεγέννημαι καὶ εἰς τοῦτο ἐλήλυθα εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ἵνα μαρτυρήσω τῇ ἀληθείᾳ: πᾶς ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀκούει μου τῆς φωνῆς. 38λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια; Καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν πάλιν ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἐγὼ οὐδεμίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 39ἔστιν δὲ συνήθεια ὑμῖν ἵνα ἕνα ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ πάσχα: βούλεσθε οὖν ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 40ἐκραύγασαν οὖν πάλιν λέγοντες, Μὴ τοῦτον ἀλλὰ τὸν Βαραββᾶν. ἦν δὲ ὁ Βαραββᾶς λῃστής.

19: 1 - 1Τότε οὖν ἔλαβεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐμαστίγωσεν. 2καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται πλέξαντες στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῦ τῇ κεφαλῇ, καὶ ἱμάτιον πορφυροῦν περιέβαλον αὐτόν, 3καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἔλεγον, Χαῖρε, ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων: καὶ ἐδίδοσαν αὐτῷ ῥαπίσματα. 4Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πάλιν ἔξω ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἴδε ἄγω ὑμῖν αὐτὸν ἔξω, ἵνα γνῶτε ὅτι οὐδεμίαν αἰτίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ. 5ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔξω, φορῶν τὸν ἀκάνθινον στέφανον καὶ τὸ πορφυροῦν ἱμάτιον. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄνθρωπος. 6ὅτε οὖν εἶδον αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες, Σταύρωσον σταύρωσον. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς καὶ σταυρώσατε, ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐχ εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 7ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, Ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὀφείλει ἀποθανεῖν, ὅτι υἱὸν θεοῦ ἑαυτὸν ἐποίησεν. 8Οτε οὖν ἤκουσεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τοῦτον τὸν λόγον, μᾶλλον ἐφοβήθη, 9καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον πάλιν καὶ λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ, Πόθεν εἶ σύ; ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀπόκρισιν οὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ. 10λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Ἐμοὶ οὐ λαλεῖς; οὐκ οἶδας ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχω ἀπολῦσαί σε καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω σταυρῶσαί σε; 11ἀπεκρίθη [αὐτῷ] Ἰησοῦς, Οὐκ εἶχες ἐξουσίαν κατ' ἐμοῦ οὐδεμίαν εἰ μὴ ἦν δεδομένον σοι ἄνωθεν: διὰ τοῦτο ὁ παραδούς μέ σοι μείζονα ἁμαρτίαν ἔχει. 12ἐκ τούτου ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἐζήτει ἀπολῦσαι αὐτόν: οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες, Ἐὰν τοῦτον ἀπολύσῃς, οὐκ εἶ φίλος τοῦ Καίσαρος: πᾶς ὁ βασιλέα ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν ἀντιλέγει τῷ Καίσαρι. 13Ὁ οὖν Πιλᾶτος ἀκούσας τῶν λόγων τούτων ἤγαγεν ἔξω τὸν Ἰησοῦν,

καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπὶ βήματος εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Λιθόστρωτον, Ἑβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθα. 14ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα, ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη. καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, Ἴδε ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν. 15ἐκραύγασαν οὖν ἐκεῖνοι, *)=αρον ἆρον, σταύρωσον αὐτόν. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τὸν βασιλέα ὑμῶν σταυρώσω; ἀπεκρίθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς, Οὐκ ἔχομεν βασιλέα εἰ μὴ Καίσαρα. 16τότε οὖν παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σταυρωθῇ. Παρέλαβον οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν: 17καὶ βαστάζων ἑαυτῷ τὸν σταυρὸν ἐξῆλθεν εἰς τὸν λεγόμενον Κρανίου Τόπον, ὃ λέγεται Ἑβραϊστὶ Γολγοθα, 18ὅπου αὐτὸν ἐσταύρωσαν, καὶ μετ' αὐτοῦ ἄλλους δύο ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐντεῦθεν, μέσον δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν. 19ἔγραψεν δὲ καὶ τίτλον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἔθηκεν ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ: ἦν δὲ γεγραμμένον, Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων. 20τοῦτον οὖν τὸν τίτλον πολλοὶ ἀνέγνωσαν τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ὅτι ἐγγὺς ἦν ὁ τόπος τῆς πόλεως ὅπου ἐσταυρώθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς: καὶ ἦν γεγραμμένον Ἑβραϊστί, Ῥωμαϊστί, Ἑλληνιστί. 21ἔλεγον οὖν τῷ Πιλάτῳ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, Μὴ γράφε, Ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἀλλ' ὅτι ἐκεῖνος εἶπεν, Βασιλεύς εἰμι τῶν Ἰουδαίων. 22ἀπεκρίθη ὁ
Πιλᾶτος, Ὃ γέγραφα, γέγραφα. 23Οἱ οὖν στρατιῶται ὅτε ἐσταύρωσαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἔλαβον τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐποίησαν τέσσαρα μέρη, ἑκάστῳ στρατιώτῃ μέρος, καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα. ἦν δὲ ὁ χιτὼν ἄραφος, ἐκ τῶν ἄνωθεν ὑφαντὸς δι' ὅλου. 24εἶπαν οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους, Μὴ σχίσωμεν αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ λάχωμεν περὶ αὐτοῦ τίνος ἔσται: ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ [ἡ λέγουσα], Διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον. Οἱ μὲν οὖν στρατιῶται ταῦτα ἐποίησαν. 25εἱστήκεισαν δὲ παρὰ τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀδελφὴ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Κλωπᾶ καὶ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή. 26Ἰησοῦς οὖν ἰδὼν τὴν μητέρα καὶ τὸν μαθητὴν παρεστῶτα ὃν ἠγάπα, λέγει τῇ μητρί, Γύναι, ἴδε ὁ υἱός σου. 27εἶτα λέγει τῷ μαθητῇ, Ἴδε ἡ μήτηρ σου. καὶ ἀπ' ἐκείνης τῆς ὥρας ἔλαβεν ὁ μαθητὴς αὐτὴν εἰς τὰ ἴδια. 28Μετὰ τοῦτο εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤδη πάντα τετέλεσται, ἵνα τελειωθῇ ἡ γραφή, λέγει, Διψῶ. 29σκεῦος ἔκειτο ὄξους μεστόν: σπόγγον οὖν μεστὸν τοῦ ὄξους ὑσσώπῳ περιθέντες προσήνεγκαν αὐτοῦ τῷ στόματι. 30ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, Τετέλεσται: καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλὴν παρέδωκεν τὸ πνεῦμα. 31Οἱ οὖν Ἰουδαῖοι, ἐπεὶ παρασκευὴ ἦν, ἵνα μὴ μείνῃ ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ τὰ σώματα ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ, ἦν γὰρ μεγάλη ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνου τοῦ σαββάτου, ἠρώτησαν τὸν Πιλᾶτον ἵνα κατεαγῶσιν αὐτῶν τὰ σκέλη καὶ ἀρθῶσιν. 32ἦλθον οὖν οἱ στρατιῶται, καὶ τοῦ μὲν πρώτου κατέαξαν τὰ σκέλη καὶ τοῦ ἄλλου τοῦ συσταυρωθέντος αὐτῷ: 33ἐπὶ δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐλθόντες, ὡς εἶδον ἤδη αὐτὸν τεθνηκότα, οὐ κατέαξαν αὐτοῦ τὰ σκέλη, 34ἀλλ' εἷς τῶν στρατιωτῶν λόγχῃ αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευρὰν ἔνυξεν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν εὐθὺς αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ.

35καὶ ὁ ἑωρακὼς μεμαρτύρηκεν, καὶ ἀληθινὴ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ μαρτυρία, καὶ ἐκεῖνος οἶδεν ὅτι ἀληθῆ λέγει, ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς πιστεύ[ς]ητε. 36ἐγένετο γὰρ ταῦτα ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ, Ὀστοῦν οὐ συντριβήσεται αὐτοῦ. 37καὶ πάλιν ἑτέρα γραφὴ λέγει, Ὄψονται εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν. 38Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἠρώτησεν τὸν Πιλᾶτον Ἰωσὴφ [ὁ] ἀπὸ Ἁριμαθαίας, ὢν μαθητὴς τοῦ Ἰησοῦ κεκρυμμένος δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἵνα ἄρῃ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ: καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος. ἦλθεν οὖν καὶ ἦρεν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ. 39ἦλθεν δὲ καὶ Νικόδημος, ὁ ἐλθὼν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς τὸ πρῶτον, φέρων μίγμα σμύρνης καὶ ἀλόης ὡς λίτρας ἑκατόν. 40ἔλαβον οὖν τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸ ὀθονίοις μετὰ τῶν ἀρωμάτων, καθὼς ἔθος ἐστὶν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ἐνταφιάζειν. 41ἦν δὲ ἐν τῷ τόπῳ ὅπου ἐσταυρώθη κῆπος, καὶ ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μνημεῖον καινὸν ἐν ᾧ οὐδέπω οὐδεὶς ἦν τεθειμένος: 42ἐκεῖ οὖν διὰ τὴν παρασκευὴν τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ὅτι ἐγγὺς ἦν τὸ μνημεῖον, ἔθηκαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν.

2. ANALYSIS: John 18:1 -- 19-42

Jn. 18:3 - speiran - This Roman term for cohort implies that there were soldiers
of Pilate involved in the arrest.
Jn. 18:6 - ego eimi...apelthan eis ta hopiso dai epesan chamai - Jesus' presence
and his proclamation of it stuns his attackers.
Jn. 18:9 - plerothe...The fulfillment of prophecy is a recurrent theme in this
passion narrative. Here Jesus probably refers ato his own statement in John
Jn. 18:11 - to poterion ho dedoken moi ho pater, ou me pio auto - The rhetorical
phrasing of what was a genuine question in the synoptics calls for a positive
response, "Yes, you shall."
Jn. 18:15 - allos mathetes...gnostos to archierei - How another disciple of Jesus
could have made it into the priest's court when Peter didn't is problematic.

Possible "others" are: 1) The Beloved Disciple [because of closeness to Jesus,
association with Peter, presence at the cross].;
The improbability of the Beloved Disciple begin allowed to enter gives rise to
three others: 2) an unknown, 3) Judas, and 4) Nicodemus.
Jn. 18:19 - peri ton matheton autou kai peri tes didaches autou - This is John's
only recorded questioning by the temple authorities, who seek to ascertain how
subversive as well as how blasphemous Jesus is. Note that Jesus avoids the
question of his disciples, and stands on his public record of teaching (v. 20).
Jn. 18:29 - Pilatos - John first mentions Pilate here without identifying him as
governor. The tradition of Pilate's humanity and concern for Jesus is unlikely,
given the presence of Roman soldiers at the arrest. Pilate's question in verse
29 (tina kategorian pherete tou anthropou toutou) is formal rather than
Jn. 18:31 - kai kata ton nomon hymon krinate auton - Scholars debate whether
the Jewish authorities did have capital powers. The state had jurisdiction over
political crimes.
Jn. 18:32 - plerothe - See John 18:9.
Jn. 18:33-6 - basileus - Pilate and Jesus use the same word, king, but with
entirely different meanings.
Jn. 18:37 - ego eis touto gegennemai - Jesus explains his destiny.
Jn. 18:37-8 - aletheias - Again, Pilate and Jesus have vastly different meanings
for the same word, truth.
Jn. 19:7 - uion theou - This is the theological accusation.

Jn. 19:8 - mallon - We haven' heard of fear previously, though here it is
reported to have increased. Is it a fear of hearing the truth, or of facing the
Jn. 19:10-11 - exousian - Jesus and Pilate use the word for power in difference
senses also.
Jn. 19:12 - philos tou kaisaros - An official title meaning "friend of Caesar."
Jn. 19:16 - paredoken - Pilate judges and sentences Jesus.
Jn. 19:17 - Heauto - It was standard for a condemned person to carry the
Jn. 19:24 - Note here the need to fulfill scripture.
Jn. 19:25b - Note the faithful women, para to stauro.
Jn. 19:26-7 - ide - Jesus uses the same word, behold, to Mary and the Beloved
disciple in this adoption formula. A new reality is coming into being.
Jn. 19:28 - dipso - Even this apparent expression of weakness is turned into a
triumphant fulfillment of scripture.
Jn. 19:30 - tetelestai - "accomplished" ; paredoken to pneuma - The same word
is used for Pilate handing over Jesus in 19:16. The emphasis here is on Jesus'
volition in his own death.
Jn. 19:34 - aima kai hydor - Only John reports this, which may be part of the
symbolism of the crucified Christ.
Jn. 19:36 - plerothe - Again scripture is fulfilled. Jesus is as an unblemished
Passover lamb.

3. STRATEGY: John 18:1 - 19:42
Good Friday is the most solemn day of the church year. Many churches
observe it with special services such as Stations of the Cross, Tenebrae or
meditation on the Seven Last Words. Virtually every church member, however
peripheral, knows the story of Good Friday. But most people, lay and clergy
alike, when asked to tell the story of Jesus' Passion, will give an syncretistic
Good Friday is thus like Christmas in that we mix the various Gospel
accounts with legends in our memories. Many Good Friday services
encourage a blended view of the various Gospel accounts. There is nothing
wrong with being conversant with the various versions of the Passion of Jesus.
Each gospel is rich in detail and perspective, and to leave any one of them out
is to lose a great deal. However, to know the story and to hear it proclaimed
only as an amalgam is to do disservice to the theological perspectives of the
four Gospel writers.

It is not a random accident, therefore, that John's Passion account is used on Good Friday. Passion Sunday alternates among the Synoptics, but Good Friday remains Johannine. Reading the Synoptics, we may wonder with the child, "What is so good about Good Friday?" The answer given to that question in
John's Gospel is an essential preaching point, especially if one chooses to be
Biblical and not simply narrative on Good Friday. Good Friday is good,
according to John, because Jesus is completely in control of his own destiny.

Together with God he plans and implements everything for our salvation.
From his confident striding onto the Mount of Olives, to his spirited debates
with Pilate, to his final words on the cross, Jesus is in charge. There is no
room for our pity here. Even to wallow in our own
sinfulness is self-indulgent and not the point of the Gospel. The drama that we
witness is God's will, even the seemingly incongruous details. All attempts to
humiliate Jesus glorify him. All attempts to discredit him acclaim him.
The preacher's Good Friday challenge is to proclaim the Johannine triumph
while maintaining the solemnity of the day. The victory on the cross is total,
but it is not without cost. God is the playwright, and Jesus the star in this
drama, yet the stage (for at least the Passion) is the world. One cannot
interpret this drama completely without contemplating the world's role in it.
The Passion of Jesus is about humanity's rejection and destruction of God. It is
about the religious establishment colluding with the state to resist God's will.
It is about human nature, free will. It is about historic events, and about a
continuing human tendency. It is about them, and about us, a point made
dramatically clear when the Passion is done by congregational reading and the
people are called on to say "Crucify, crucify!"

Brown, Raymond E. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN (xiii-xxi). THE
ANCHOR BIBLE. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970.
Bultmann, Rudolf. THE GOSPEL OF JOHN. Philadelphia: Westminster,

Worship leaders are encouraged to plan Good Friday observances taking
great care to convey the triumph and the dignity of John's Passion account. On
this day, the Eucharist for once is not appropriate. It is to be saved for the
Easter Vigil, or Easter, as the culmination. Good Friday remains quiet,
watching and waiting. We are like the women at the foot of the cross,
witnessing the pain, awaiting the new community.
Some helpful comments for worship preparation are given by Philip H.
Lutheran Book of Worship, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1979,
pp. 320-326.

Exegete – Bishhop Jessica Crist-Graybill | Missoula, Montana

While church music for this day is normally restrained (no entrance hymn or
recessional hymn, e.g.) some hymns that may be appropriate for meditation
include the following:


O SACRED HEAD (ELW 351-2, HB 168/9, LBW 116/7)
THERE IS A GREEN HILL FAR AWAY (HB 167, omit st. 3,4; LBW 114),




[ For services other than the Vigil of Easter ]
Job 14:1-14 or Lamentations 3:1-9, 19-24
Psalm 31:1-4, 15-16
1 Peter 4:1-8
Matthew 27:57-66 or John 19:38-42



LEXEGETE/ Year C / Gospel of Luke

+ T R I D U U M +


MAUNDY THURSDAY | April 1, 2020

Exodus 12:1-4 (5-10) 11-14

Psalm 116:1-2, 12-19 (Ps. 116:13)

1 Corinthians 11:23-26

John 13:1-17, 31b-35

Lucan Text: Luke 22: 7-30

NOTE: In order to serve all lectionaries as closely as possible, LEXEGETE

has joined the Lutheran and New Common lectionaries with the alternate

reading from the Book of Common Prayer. The resultant text from Luke 22 is

thus a longer version bridging all three sets of pericopes.


1a. TEXT: John 13:1-17, 31b-35 (NIV)

Jesus Washes His Disciples' Feet

1) It was just before the Passover Feast. Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and go to the Father. Having loved his own who were in

the world, he now showed them the full extent of his love. 2)The evening meal

was being served, and the devil had already prompted Judas Iscariot, son of

Simon, to betray Jesus. 3)Jesus knew that the Father had put all things under his

power, and that he had come from God and was returning to God; 4)so he got

up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his

waist. 5)After that, he poured water into a basin and began to wash his

disciples' feet, drying them with the towel that was wrapped around him. 6)He

came to Simon Peter, who said to him, "Lord, are you going to wash my feet?"

7)Jesus replied, "You do not realize now what I am doing, but later you will

understand." 8)"No," said Peter, "you shall never wash my feet." Jesus

answered, "Unless I wash you, you have no part with me." 9)"Then, Lord,"

Simon Peter replied, "not just my feet but my hands and my head as well!"

10)Jesus answered, "A person who has had a bath needs only to wash his feet;

his whole body is clean. And you are clean, though not every one of you."

11)For he knew who was going to betray him, and that was why he said not

every one was clean. 12)When he had finished washing their feet, he put on his

clothes and returned to his place. "Do you understand what I have done for

you?" he asked them. 13)"You call me 'Teacher' and 'Lord,' and rightly so, for

that is what I am. 14)Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your

feet, you also should wash one another's feet. 15)I have set you an example that

you should do as I have done for you. 16)I tell you the truth, no servant is

greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him.

17)Now that you know these things, you will be blessed if you do them.

Jesus Predicts His Betrayal

[ 18)"I am not referring to all of you; I know those I have chosen. But this is to

fulfill the scripture: 'He who shares my bread has lifted up his heel against me.'

19)"I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you

will believe that I am He. 20)I tell you the truth, whoever accepts anyone I send

accepts me; and whoever accepts me accepts the one who sent me." 21)After he

had said this, Jesus was troubled in spirit and testified, "I tell you the truth, one

of you is going to betray me." 22)His disciples stared at one another, at a loss

to know which of them he meant. 23)One of them, the disciple whom Jesus

loved, was reclining next to him. 24)Simon Peter motioned to this disciple and

said, "Ask him which one he means." 25)Leaning back against Jesus, he asked

him, "Lord, who is it?" 26)Jesus answered, "It is the one to whom I will give

this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish." Then, dipping the piece

of bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, son of Simon. 27)As soon as Judas took

the bread, Satan entered into him. 28)"What you are about to do, do quickly,"

Jesus told him, but no one at the meal understood why Jesus said this to him.

29)Since Judas had charge of the money, some thought Jesus was telling him to

buy what was needed for the Feast, or to give something to the poor. 30)As

soon as Judas had taken the bread, he went out. And it was night.]

Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial

31)When he was gone, Jesus said, "Now is the Son of Man glorified and God

is glorified in him. 32)If God is glorified in him, God will glorify the Son in

himself, and will glorify him at once. 33)"My children, I will be with you only

a little longer. You will look for me, and just as I told the Jews, so I tell you

now: Where I am going, you cannot come. 34)"A new command I give you:

Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. 35)By

this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another."

[ 36)Simon Peter asked him, "Lord, where are you going?" Jesus replied,

"Where I am going, you cannot follow now, but you will follow later." 37)Peter

asked, "Lord, why can't I follow you now? I will lay down my life for you."

38)Then Jesus answered, "Will you really lay down your life for me? I tell you

the truth, before the rooster crows, you will disown me three times! ]

GREEK: John 13:1-17, 31b-35

1Πρ δ τς ορτς το πάσχα εδς ησος τι λθεν ατο ρα να μεταβ κ το κόσμου τούτου πρς τν πατέρα, γαπήσας τος δίους τος ν τ κόσμ, ες τέλος γάπησεν ατούς. 2κα δείπνου γινομένου, το διαβόλου δη βεβληκότος ες τν καρδίαν να παραδο ατν ούδας Σίμωνος σκαριώτου, 3εδς τι πάντα δωκεν ατ πατρ ες τς χερας κα τι π θεο ξλθεν κα πρς τν θεν πάγει, 4γείρεται κ το δείπνου κα τίθησιν τ μάτια, κα λαβν λέντιον διέζωσεν αυτόν. 5ετα βάλλει δωρ ες τν νιπτρα κα ρξατο νίπτειν τος πόδας τν μαθητν κα κμάσσειν τ λεντί ν διεζωσμένος. 6ρχεται ον πρς Σίμωνα Πέτρον. λέγει ατ, Κύριε, σύ μου νίπτεις τος πόδας; 7πεκρίθη ησος κα επεν ατ, γ ποι σ οκ οδας ρτι, γνώσ δ μετ τατα. 8λέγει ατ Πέτρος, Ο μ νίψς μου τος πόδας ες τν αἰῶνα. πεκρίθη ησος ατ, Ἐὰν μ νίψω σε, οκ χεις μέρος μετ' μο. 9λέγει ατ Σίμων Πέτρος, Κύριε, μ τος πόδας μου μόνον λλ κα τς χερας κα τν κεφαλήν. 10λέγει ατ ησος, λελουμένος οκ χει χρείαν ε μ τος πόδας νίψασθαι, λλ' στιν καθαρς λος: κα μες καθαροί στε, λλ' οχ πάντες. 11δει γρ τν παραδιδόντα ατόν: δι τοτο επεν τι Οχ πάντες καθαροί στε. 12Οτε ον νιψεν τος πόδας ατν [κα] λαβεν τ μάτια ατο κα νέπεσεν πάλιν, επεν ατος, Γινώσκετε τί πεποίηκα μν; 13μες φωνετέ με διδάσκαλος κα κύριος, κα καλς λέγετε, εμ γάρ. 14ε ον γ νιψα μν τος πόδας κύριος κα διδάσκαλος, κα μες φείλετε λλήλων νίπτειν τος πόδας: 15πόδειγμα γρ δωκα μν να καθς γ ποίησα μν κα μες ποιτε. 16μν μν λέγω μν, οκ στιν δολος μείζων το κυρίου ατο οδ πόστολος μείζων το πέμψαντος ατόν. 17ε τατα οδατε, μακάριοί στε ἐὰν ποιτε ατά.

31Οτε ον ξλθεν λέγει ησος, Νν δοξάσθη υἱὸς το νθρώπου, κα θες δοξάσθη ν ατ: 32 θες δοξάσθη ν ατ] κα θες δοξάσει ατν ν ατ, κα εθς δοξάσει ατόν. 33τεκνία, τι μικρν μεθ' μν εμι: ζητήσετέ με, κα καθς επον τος ουδαίοις τι Οπου γ πάγω μες ο δύνασθε λθεν, κα μν λέγω ρτι. 34ντολν καινν δίδωμι μν, να γαπτε λλήλους: καθς γάπησα μς να κα μες γαπτε λλήλους. 35ν τούτ γνώσονται πάντες τι μο μαθηταί στε, ἐὰν γάπην χητε ν λλήλοις.

1a. Lucan Text: Luke 22: 7-30 (ESV)

Lk. 22:7 Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover

lamb had to be sacrificed.

Lk. 22:8 So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover

meal for us that we may eat it."

Lk. 22:9 They asked him, "Where do you want us to make preparations for it?"

Lk. 22:10 "Listen," he said to them, "when you have entered the city, a man

carrying a jar of water will meet you; follow him into the house he enters

Lk. 22:11 and say to the owner of the house, `The teacher asks you, "Where is

the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'

Lk. 22:12 He will show you a large room upstairs, already furnished. Make

preparations for us there."

Lk. 22:13 So they went and found everything as he had told them; and they

prepared the Passover meal.

Lk. 22:14 When the hour came, he took his place at the table, and the apostles

with him.

Lk. 22:15 He said to them, "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with

you before I suffer;

Lk. 22:16 for I tell you, I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of


Lk. 22:17 Then he took a cup, and after giving thanks he said, "Take this and

divide it among yourselves;

Lk. 22:18 for I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the

vine until the kingdom of God comes."

Lk. 22:19 Then he took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he

broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you.

Do this in remembrance of me."

Lk. 22:20 And he did the same with the cup after supper, saying, "This cup

that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

Lk. 22:21 But see, the one who betrays me is with me, and his hand is on the


Lk. 22:22 For the Son of Man is going as it has been determined, but woe to

that one by whom he is betrayed!"

Lk. 22:23 Then they began to ask one another, which one of them it could be

who would do this.

Lk. 22:24 A dispute also arose among them as to which one of them was to be

regarded as the greatest.

Lk. 22:25 But he said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them;

and those in authority over them are called benefactors.

Lk. 22:26 But not so with you; rather the greatest among you must become

like the youngest, and the leader like one who serves.

Lk. 22:27 For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who

serves? Is it not the one at the table? But I am among you as one who serves.

Lk. 22:28 "You are those who have stood by me in my trials;

Lk. 22:29 and I confer on you, just as my Father has conferred on me, a


Lk. 22:30 so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you

will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Greek: Luke 22:7-30

ηλθεν δ μέρα τν ζύμων, [ν] δει θύεσθαι τ πάσχα. 8κα πέστειλεν Πέτρον κα ωάννην επών, Πορευθέντες τοιμάσατε μν τ πάσχα να φάγωμεν. 9ο δ επαν ατ, Πο θέλεις τοιμάσωμεν; 10 δ επεν ατος, δο εσελθόντων μν ες τν πόλιν συναντήσει μν νθρωπος κεράμιον δατος βαστάζων: κολουθήσατε ατ ες τν οκίαν ες ν εσπορεύεται. 11κα ρετε τ οκοδεσπότ τς οκίας, Λέγει σοι διδάσκαλος, Πο στιν τ κατάλυμα που τ πάσχα μετ τν μαθητν μου φάγω; 12κκενος μν δείξει νάγαιον μέγα στρωμένον: κε τοιμάσατε. 13πελθόντες δ ερον καθς ερήκει ατος, κα τοίμασαν τ πάσχα. 14Κα τε γένετο ρα, νέπεσεν κα ο πόστολοι σν ατ. 15κα επεν πρς ατούς, πιθυμί πεθύμησα τοτο τ πάσχα φαγεν μεθ' μν πρ το με παθεν:

16λέγω γρ μν τι ο μ φάγω ατ ως του πληρωθ ν τ βασιλεί το θεο. 17κα δεξάμενος ποτήριον εχαριστήσας επεν, Λάβετε τοτο κα διαμερίσατε ες αυτούς: 18λέγω γρ μν [τι] ο μ πίω π το νν π το γενήματος τς μπέλου ως ο βασιλεία το θεο λθ. 19κα λαβν ρτον εχαριστήσας κλασεν κα δωκεν ατος λέγων, Τοτό στιν τ σμά μου τ πρ μν διδόμενον: τοτο ποιετε ες τν μν νάμνησιν. 20κα τ ποτήριον σαύτως μετ τ δειπνσαι, λέγων, Τοτο τ ποτήριον καιν διαθήκη ν τ αματί μου, τ πρ μν κχυννόμενον. 21πλν δο χερ το παραδιδόντος με μετ' μο π τς τραπέζης: 22τι υἱὸς μν το νθρώπου κατ τ ρισμένον πορεύεται, πλν οα τ νθρώπ κείν δι' ο παραδίδοται. 23κα ατο ρξαντο συζητεν πρς αυτος τ τίς ρα εη ξ ατν τοτο μέλλων πράσσειν. 24γένετο δ κα φιλονεικία ν ατος, τ τίς ατν δοκε εναι μείζων. 25 δ επεν ατος, Ο βασιλες τν θνν κυριεύουσιν ατν κα ο ξουσιάζοντες ατν εεργέται καλονται. 26μες δ οχ οτως, λλ' μείζων ν μν γινέσθω ς νεώτερος, κα γούμενος ς διακονν. 27τίς γρ μείζων, νακείμενος διακονν; οχ νακείμενος; γ δ ν μέσ μν εμι ς διακονν. 28μες δέ στε ο διαμεμενηκότες μετ' μο ν τος πειρασμος μου: 29κγ διατίθεμαι μν καθς διέθετό μοι πατήρ μου βασιλείαν 30να σθητε κα πίνητε π τς τραπέζης μου ν τ βασιλεί μου, κα καθήσεσθε π θρόνων τς δώδεκα φυλς κρίνοντες το σραήλ.

1a. Lucan Context: Luke 22: 7-30

Luke's picture of the Last Supper is dramatically compelling and

theologically profound. After his triumphal entry and five days of teaching in

Jerusalem, Jesus has gained the enthusiastic backing of the crowds and the

enmity of the Jewish religious authorities. We have just learned in vv. 2-6 that

the chief priests and Pharisees seek to arrest Jesus but fear the people. They

obtain their opportunity when Judas, one of the twelve, turns traitor. At this

point, Jesus prepares to celebrate the Passover with his disciples. The

performance of this solemn religious duty puts him, as he is well aware, in

mortal danger, since it must be a private ceremony. This context accounts for

the conspiratorial tone of vv. 7-13. The fact that Jesus himself knows, but the

disciples evidently do not know, the full significance of what is happening adds

pathos to the account. As this human drama absorbs us, we are also aware of a

deeper drama of salvation. Jesus, in celebrating the Passover, gives it new

meaning by being himself the Passover lamb who completes God's salvific

work in the Exodus by presenting himself as a perfect offering to God on behalf

of the entire world.

This passage is the only gospel account of the Last Supper to include, not

only Jesus' description of the bread and wine as his body and blood, as do

Matthew and Mark, but also the command, "do this in remembrance of me."

As such it is traditionally read on Maundy Thursday to commemorate the

institution of the eucharist. The Reformation made the interpretation of Jesus'

words "This is my body" and "This is my blood" the subject of intense

confessional debate, as in the confrontation between Luther and Zwingli at the

Colloquy of Marburg in 1529. Debate now centers on a more fundamental

question: "Did Jesus actually institute the eucharist?" Many serious scholars

do not think so. Rudolf Bultmann, for instance, held it as all but self-evident

that our account of the Last Supper as the institution of the eucharist is a "cult


recently, Joachim Jeremias has argued cogently for the authenticity of Luke's


Such discussion is complicated by a textual problem. A family of Western

Mss. does not read the words between "this is my body" in v. 19 and the

beginning of v. 21. The argument is made that this shorter form of the text is

original, vv. 19b and 20 being an early interpolation added under the influence

of Paul's discussion of the eucharist in I Cor. 11: 23-26. If the longer text is

original, it provides independent attestation of the tradition that attributed to

Jesus the words that institute the eucharist as the principal act of Christian

worship, "Do this in remembrance of me." Nonetheless, the importance of the

textual issue should not be overrated. Paul's description of the eucharist, which

he claims to have received from Jesus himself by way of tradition, is, in itself,

sufficient evidence that Christians very soon believed that Jesus had instituted

the eucharist at the Last Supper. At the same time, confirmation of that

tradition in Luke could not prove that it came from Jesus himself as opposed to

the primitive Christian community. Most textual scholars accept the longer form.

Jeremias makes the authenticity of the words of institution as sayings of

Jesus historically plausible by demonstrating that our accounts of the Last

Supper in the Gospels and in Paul are consistent with Jesus' decision to

celebrate a final Passover just before his death. He also argues that the

accounts we have in the Synoptic gospels are consistent with such a

celebration, which Jesus reinterprets and modifies (as, for example, by passing

a single cup around). He provides a provocative interpretation of the words "do

this in remembrance of me," arguing on the basis of Biblical usage that the

implied subject of remembrance is not the disciples, but God. The disciples are

to celebrate a common meal, not so that they will remember Christ, but so that

God will remember him and bring on the glorious last age (THE


2. ANALYSIS: Luke 22: 7-30

v. 7 [Elthen de he hemera ton azumon, hei edei thuesthai pascha.] Here, as

in v. 22:1, Luke identifies the Passover, which properly designated only the 15

Nisan, with the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which coincided with it and lasted

seven days. The confusion stems from what appears to be an ancient fusion of

a pastoral feast, the Passover, with an agricultural one, the Feast of Unleavened

Bread. Note that [pascha] (Hebrew "pesah") means both the Passover feast and

the Passover lamb; here, as in vv. 8 and 15, it means the latter. Although Luke

does not describe Jesus eating the lamb, his presence is presupposed.

v. 10 [sunantese humin anthropos keramion hudatos bastazon]-- Presumably

it would be remarkable to be met by a man carrying a jug of water, because this

was normally women's work. Jesus' instructions have a conspiratorial tone.

Since Judas was seeking an opportunity to betray Jesus apart from the

multitude, it is important that he not know in advance where Jesus will

celebrate the Passover. It is natural to assume that Jesus had already made

some arrangement with the man in question, as Matthew 26: 18 implies.

Nonetheless, we cannot necessarily do so here any more than in 20:30-35,

where Jesus instructs the disciples to bring to him the colt he will use in his

entry into Jerusalem. Luke does not transmit Matt. 17: 24-27, the story of the

temple tax, where Jesus gives the disciples instructions that imply miraculous


v. 14 [anepesen] means "he reclined." Reclining at table had become the

customary way to celebrate the Passover by Jesus' time, replacing the early

custom of standing described in Exodus 12.

v. 15 [pro me pathein] -- "Before I suffer" refers here, as elsewhere, to Jesus'


v. 16 [heos hotou plerothei en tel basileiai tou theou] -- Joseph A. Fitzmyer

(THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE, X-XXIV, p. 397) points out that

Jesus here "gives a new eschatological dimension to the Passover meal being

taken with his disciples."

v. 17 [eucharistesas] -- "Giving thanks" here and in v. 18 refers to normal

prayers of thanksgiving over the meal. Its association with the Lord's Supper

provided the earliest name for the Christian rite.

v. 19 [touto] means "this bread"

v. 20 [He kaine diatheke], "new testament," comes from the LXX version of

Jeremiah 31:31 and gave its name to the specifically Christian scriptures.

3. STRATEGY: Luke 22: 7-30

The late Jaroslav Pelikan boldly made clear the significance of the eucharist

as the most characteristic act of Christian worship for the past two millennia:

I have never seen it stated in print (except when I myself have stated

it), and I am not quite sure how I would go about documenting it, even with a

string of footnotes. But it is, I think, a "self-evident truth"... that, for more than

nineteen centuries and in a great variety of cultures, Christians have been

blessing bread and wine and celebrating the sacrament of the Eucharist nearly

every day. If that is a self-evident truth, it is also a massive instance of

continuity amid change, and a prime instance of the reality of tradition (THE


Maundy Thursday provides us an opportunity to ground this act of worship in

the Biblical witness to Jesus Christ, to ground the sacrament in the word. The

eucharist reminds us that our salvation is the result of the decisive saving act of

God recounted in the Bible. It also reminds us that we attain salvation through

our participation in Christ's self-giving life.

4. REFERENCES: Luke 22: 7-30


ed., tr. John Marsh. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.


Anchor Bible 28A.


Norman Perrin. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

Pelikan, Jaroslav . THE VINDICATION OF TRADITION. New Haven:

Yale University Press, 1984.

5. MUSIC: Maundy Thursday

"Come, risen Lord, and deign to be our guest" (Hymnal 1982, pp. 305 &

306; LBW 209), "Let thy Blood in mercy poured" (Hymnal 1982, p. 313),

and "Thou, who at thy first Eucharist didst pray" (Hymnal 1982, p. 315) are

eucharistic hymns particularly appropriate to Maundy Thursday.

Exegete: Joseph Trigg, PhD, is the author of an oft-cited major study of

Origen (SCM Press, 1985). It leads the “Patristics Bibliography”

( (It is now available online from:

< >


The Pascal mystery we celebrate during Holy Week calls to mind the deeper meaning of all of our worship and eucharist. Timothy F. Sedgwick's little volume SACRAMENTAL ETHICS: PASCHAL IDENTITY AND THE CHRISTIAN LIFE is a remarkably succinct and articulate discussion of the importance of worship in the moral life of Christians. Based on the axiom, Lex orandi, Lex credendi (the law of worship is the law of belief), the book explores the necessity for a clear theology of worship in order to arrive at an ethical perspective for the church. Because worship correlates life and faith, worship transforms and changes the worshippers in relationship to God. While this may seem overly obvious at first, Sedgwick skillfully expands on these ideas in a way that helps us see both worship and ethics in a new light. A key concept is the importance of mythic stories, which mediate a world to the worshipping community. But worship is parabolic, as well, and this is what challenges us to enter into a new relationship with God.

Sedgwick concentrates on the Paschal mystery, not only the passion and resurrection of Jesus in the past but the presently experienced mystery of that passion and resurrection to which we are reconciled.n Thus the center of this mystery brings us into stark conflict with our hedonistic, utilitarian culture. We discover that we are neither self-sufficient nor autonomous nor capable "by our own reason and strength" of freeing or saving ourselves. Within the ecology of our faith, we are part of a web of interdependence and grace. We deny this only at our own peril. For Sedgwick, then, Christian ethics is about the paschal mystery and "is more broadly part of the task of the cure of souls, sustaining and nurturing individuals and the community in their faith" (p. 19). In the last analysis, it is that system of formation and identity which leads us to grasp the gifted nature of the paschal mystery, that

"Our life is not our own but is given by God" (p. 20). Timothy F. Sedgwick is Assoc. Prof. of Christian Ethics and Moral Theology at Seabury- Western Theological Seminary in Evanston, IL. SACRAMENTAL ETHICS (FORTRESS, 1987), was to our knowledge his first book. It is filled with helpful insights into the relationship between ritual and the moral life!